Category: Circ. n. 30/d, 15 /s

Circ. n. 30/d, 15 /s

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The datasets supporting the conclusions of this article are included within the article and its additional files. We investigated the function of circ-AKT3 in ccRCC in vitro and in vivo and detected underlying mechanisms by Western blotting, bioinformatic analysis, RNA pull-down assay and luciferase reporter assay.

Early stage or localized RCC is often treated with partial or radical nephrectomy, with a 5-year survival rate of Though several drugs can be used to treat metastatic RCC, most patients experience cancer progression and eventually die.

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Thus, to obtain a better treatment strategy for renal tumor patients, a more refined understanding of the mechanism of ccRCC metastasis is urgently needed. Owing to their circular structure, circRNAs have higher stability to exist in the human nuclei and avoid degradation by RNases [ 5 ].

With the frequent use of high throughput sequencing and in-depth mechanistic research, circRNAs have been found to have multiple functions. As one of the regulatory RNAs, circRNAs can promote gene transcription [ 6 ], regulate selective splicing [ 4 ], inhibit the maturation of miRNA [ 7 ], and promote protein-protein interactions as well as miRNA sponges [ 48 ].

Emerging evidence suggests that cancer aggressiveness is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition EMT [ 11 ].

The hallmark of EMT is the functional loss of cell adherent junctions [ 12 ]. The adherent junctions are mainly composed of a transmembrane calcium-dependent glycoprotein named E-cadherin Gene ID: CDH1which plays an important part in mechanical coupling of cells, thereby maintaining integrity both at local and tissue levels [ 15 ].

Taken together, it is not surprising that E-cadherin was established as a tumor suppressor [ 18 ]. Moreover, its loss of function is associated with cancer invasion and metastasis [ 1920 ], thereby resulting in the poor prognosis of numerous carcinomas [ 21 — 23 ]. In ccRCC, a deregulation of E-cadherin expression is frequently observed in clinical samples [ 19 ] and loss of E-cadherin was regarded as an early oncogenic event [ 1924 ].

On the other hand, restoration of E-cadherin suppressed cancer progression including metastasis in various in vitro and in vivo tumor models [ 212627 ]. Mechanistic study revealed that circ-AKT3 may function as a sponge of miRp to upregulate E-cadherin expression, thus inhibiting ccRCC migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo.

Furthermore, sixty pairs of ccRCC tissues and paired adjacent normal kidney tissues were collected for validation. Histological and pathological diagnoses of the specimens were confirmed according to the World Health Organization Consensus Classification and Staging System of Renal Tumor and Fuhrman grade by two experienced pathologists.

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After having washed the slides, the arrays were scanned by the Agilent Scanner GC. Agilent Feature Extraction software version Quantile normalization and subsequent data processing was performed via the R software limma package. Normalized Intensity of each group averaged normalized intensities of replicate samples, log2 transformed were analyzed by paired t-test P value cut off: 0.

Hierarchical Clustering was performed to show the distinguishable circRNAs expression pattern among samples. All the cell lines were frozen in liquid nitrogen after the first 3 passages with 60 ampules of cell stock. After an ampule was thawed, cells were used within 15 passages in every designed experiment. OSRCluciferase was established in previous study [ 25 ].

U6 acted as normalized controls. RNase R treatment was conducted as previously reported [ 26 ]. The invasive and migratory capacities of cells were evaluated via transwell assay. All cells were counted in five randomly chosen microscopic fields. The RNA pulldown assay was performed as previously described with minor modification [ 27 ].

These deregulations of circRNAs indicated their potential functions in ccRCC progression and demanded further investigation.Background: Anthracyclines are cardiotoxic; however, there are limited data characterizing the serial changes in cardiac structure and function after anthracyclines. The aim of this study was to use cardiac magnetic resonance to characterize anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

A cardiac magnetic resonance was performed at baseline and at 5, 10, and 20 weeks after randomization. Measures of primary interest included left ventricular ejection fraction, myocardial edema multiecho short-axis spin-echo acquisitionand myocardial fibrosis Look-Locker gradient echo.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that, in mice, anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is associated with an early increase in cardiac edema and a subsequent increase in myocardial fibrosis.

The early increase in edema and subacute increase in fibrosis are strongly linked and are both predictive of late mortality.

Keywords: anthracyclines; cardiotoxicity; doxorubicin; magnetic resonance imaging; myocardium. Abstract Background: Anthracyclines are cardiotoxic; however, there are limited data characterizing the serial changes in cardiac structure and function after anthracyclines. Substances Doxorubicin.Exceptions, exclusionsand exemptions to this requirement are provided for in paragraph d of this section and Subpart D of this part.

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General Requirements Section Metrics details. However, their contribution to melanoma remains largely unknown. Over the past years, the prognosis of melanoma patients has improved largely. According to the statistics from the American Cancer Society, melanoma is still the most lethal type of skin tumor with an estimated 91, new cases and deaths in [ 2 ]. Therefore, further research is urgently needed to identify more effective therapeutic schedules in order to achieve better clinical outcomes in melanoma.

Due to this property, circRNAs have strong resistance to exonucleolytic degradation and maintain high cellular stability [ 45 ]. However, circRNAs were considered to be the result of the back-splicing or by-product of pre-mRNA processing with low abundance over the past years [ 6 ]. With the development of advanced RNA sequencing RNA-seq technology and the improvement of the algorithm for circRNA detection, circRNAs have recently been pushed to the spotlight, and they are tightly linked to many physiological and pathological processes, including tumorigenesis, tumor development and immune escape [ 7 ].

For example, circTRIM33—12 is significantly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, and circTRIM33—12 upregulates TET1 expression by sponging miR, resulting in significantly reduced 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels [ 8 ].

However, few studies have linked circRNAs to the biological behavior of melanoma, which is of great significance. CD, a member of the transmembrane-4 family, encodes a protein whose open reading frame contains amino acids.

CD is mainly concentrated on the cell membrane and expressed in almost all cell types and tissues [ 9 ].

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As a critical transmembrane protein such as integrins and growth factor receptors activity organizer and regulator, CD is tightly linked to many physiological and pathological processes, especially in oncogenesis and cancer development [ 10 ]. In melanoma, it has been demonstrated that CD affinity interaction stimulates integrin-dependent signal transduction, resulting in increased cell migration and MMP-9 expression [ 13 ].

Now, overexpression of CD has been found in almost all types of tumors [ 14 ].

circ. n. 30/d, 15 /s

Thus, CD, as an oncoprotein, plays an important role in tumor progression, including melanoma. All patients underwent total resection and were verified histologically and pathologically by two pathologists. Before the operation, no one had received any form of radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and all patients obtained detailed clinicopathological and follow-up data.

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, and each patient provided written informed consent. Shanghai, China. The miRp mimics and control plasmids were purchased from GeneChem Co. The target sequences are shown in Table S 3. The primers and antibodies are presented in Table S 1 and S 2. IHC assay was performed as described in our previous study and the protocol is given in the Supplementary Materials and Methods [ 16 ].

The antibodies used in this study are presented in Table S 2. Shanghai, Chinarespectively. CCK-8, colony formation, wound healing migration, and transwell invasion assays were performed as described in our previous studies and the protocols are given in Supplementary Materials and Methods [ 1718 ]. The mixture was incubated with lysis buffer and proteinase K.

Briefly, cells were inoculated into a well plate and were co-transfected with miRp mimics or the negative control and the luciferase reporter vector as well as lipofectamine reagent Invitrogen. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software version The survival curve was prepared using the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by the log-rank t-test.

Previous studies have shown that CD is overexpressed in multiple tumors and participates in tumor progression [ 9111213 ].Metrics details. Cell proliferation, autophagy, Epithelial-mesenchymal transition EMTmigration, and invasion were evaluated by Cell counting kit-8 assay, western blotting or transwell assays.

Xenograft tumor model was established to measure tumor growth in vivo. Gastric cancer GC is the third tumor mortality worldwide [ 1 ]. The prognosis of GC patients is inversely proportional to the cancer stage. In considering the treatment, the only radical therapy for GC remains surgery nowadays [ 5 ]. However, tumor invasiveness and distant metastasis always happen after operation, thus limiting its efficiency [ 6 ].

Therefore, it is essential to explore the deep mechanisms responsible for GC metastasis, and to investigate new targets for the detection of early GC. Very recently, circRNAs have been documented as biomarkers and targets for human cancers including GC [ 1213 ]. These patients were received none chemoradiotherapy before this surgery. All manipulates involved in this study were approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhengzhou University Affiliated Zhengzhou Central Hospital in paper, and agreed by every patient in the form of written consent.

All the GC tissues and normal tissues were further confirmed by pathological analysis, then stored in liquid nitrogen. All experiments were performed in triplicate.

After days, the transfected cells were collected for further analysis. The cell proliferative curve was drawn. The western blotting produces were performed as described previously [ 14 ]. After injection, the length and width of xenograft tumors were measured every week, and the tumor volume was calculated using the formula: 0. Five weeks later, the mice were euthanized by dislocation of cervical vertebrae.

The tumors were dissected and weighted. The overall survival time was analyzed by Kaplan—Meier analysis. Firstly, we analyzed the published RNA-seq data of human GC tissues and matched normal gastric tissues.

N, normal adjacent tissue; T, tumor tissue. Subsequently, a series of functional analyses were carried out. The migrated cells and invaded cells were counted after transfection for 1 day.

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In quantifying autophagy, western blotting analyses were performed to examine expression status of autophagy-related proteins LC3 and p Taken Figs. As depicted in Fig. One representative western blot image in each group was presented. GC is still a serious threat in recent society due to its distant metastasis and deficiency of early biomarker for diagnosis. The other tumor-related physiological processes had also been modulated by dysregulation of circRNAs, such as cell apoptosis, autophagy, Warburg effect, glutaminolysis, EMT, and cisplatin resistance, as well as the underlying signaling pathways [ 18192021 ].

Inspired by these, we aimed to search and verify a novel circRNA that could contribute to GC carcinogenesis. The top ten differently expressed circRNAs were selected to test their expression level in this cohort of GC patients. However, Huang et al.

circ. n. 30/d, 15 /s

These differences might happen because of the different tissue samples. CA Cancer J Clin. Global surveillance of cancer survival — analysis of individual data for 25, patients from population-based registries in 67 countries CONCORD Cancer statistics in China, Multi-disciplinary team for early gastric cancer diagnosis improves the detection rate of early gastric cancer.

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